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Wednesday, 5 February 2014

Changes needed in Town Planning:


मराठीतून वाचण्याकरिता खाली स्क्रोल करा
 
Town Planning is more than this
Presently town planning in India is improving. However there is a great scope for its improvement. Floor Space Index (FSI) control is considered as a magic stick for every problem/difficulties faced by citizens. More stress is given on acceptability by certain group of people. This group is considered as vote bank by politicians. What is needed is town planning should be for entire population and address every need however small it may be. Many examples could be given. These are washrooms for ladies and men, space for hawkers, bus stops for public transport buses, reliable and speedy public transport, and accommodation for people living in shacks, accommodation and care of senior citizens. To save space the list is trimmed here.  In order to ensure that each and every need of people is addressed a town planner must be given opportunity to contact people in every field to understand needs. This may be better performed by a team of people expert in conducting population surveys. They could be given a pre-prepared list of needs and asked gather details and additional needs if any. The additional needs found should be included and survey continued. This survey should continue till no more additional needs are found. This data should be used for town planning.

At the beginning of the civilisation villages were established where there had been reliable water source. During past centuries water had been the basic infrastructure and other need could be fulfilled either using water or otherwise. This is the reason why most of the towns and villages are on the bank of rivers. Security also had been fundamental need and hence, secured places for habitation were found e.g. hills. In today’s world man has acquired skills to fulfil most of the needs at any place on the earth. The only requirement is communication facilities. Therefore, today’s most important and inescapable need is communication facilities. These facilities need land. In past 40-50 years it is experienced that a combination of communication facilities are needed. In an established town it is nearly impossible to find land for accommodation and for communication purpose. None parts with land. The government must take a lesson from this situation so that at least in future this problem would not arise when land is needed for accommodation and communication facilities.
Considering present facilities of communication and possible modifications in next 100 years or more there is a need for 200 to 500 metre wide ground strip or corridor joining existing towns and cities. Our planning of cities and towns including expansion of existing cities/towns should be along a wide corridor instead of on the periphery of cities/towns/villages. Once this aspect of town planning is accepted it is easy to finalise details. The corridor shall be used for communication and barren land along the corridor would be used for establishing towns to accommodate extra population in future.
There are important decisions required to be taken to proceed on this theme. Broadly these are acquition of land, development of communication system and planning of towns along the corridor. In my opinion following decision should be taken:-
1.            Land acquisition even as per the latest law is difficult to follow in practice. Present land cost invariably is low. It will not increase till facilities are constructed. After full development the cost may be many folds, may be 10-20 times and would rise with time. Another aspect is the land owner would become landless. Whatever amount he/she gets may not last for his life time leave aside for life time of children/grand children. Land is an income provider for unlimited time. Money received as sale price is not an income provider for land owners. This need changes in land acquisition laws. This is available in details here. Briefly need is 10/20 times of land needed be considered. 10/5% land from every owner be acquired and remaining 90/95% land should be redistributed among all in the same order as it is existing before acquisition. This will ensure every land owner retains 90/95% of his land and may not resist on account of fear of becoming landless. Whatever land is needed for communication should be taken on lease with clear provision of rental of 5% of land cost as valued during month of March in the preceding year. The law should specify valuers for this purpose.
2.            The corridor should be used for all communication facilities and other basic infrastructure such as electricity, water, sewage treatment and disposal etc. It can be planned to connect forests in India in future when adequate resources are available to provide safety arrangements and for crossing the corridor.
3.            Before planning towns along corridor a study should be undertaken of existing cities and towns to evaluate need of citizens. For example municipalities don’t allow hawkers on footpath. There should not be difference of opinion that hawkers obstruct pedestrians’ path. However, it can’t be denied that hawkers exist because citizens want them. If people stop buying from hawkers there shall not be hawkers. Point is all needs of citizens either legal or extra ordinary shall be considered. Where possible alternatives could be found. In case such requirements should be ignored. Road crossings, bus stops, railway stations and similar places should be intelligently used for hawkers so that footpaths are clear of hawkers. These places also should be used for other facilities like public urinals, change rooms, repair shops for domestic appliances, service providers and alike. In a virgin place it can be planned in details and would be practical.
4.            There is an argument that common man is forced by his/her financial position to construct accommodation over authorisation. There is demand that FSI for such construction be increased and excess construction be regularised with nominal penalty. Political leaders try to project their image as supporters of common man. They forget that for excess construction leads to extra population and excess consumption of facilities like communication, water, electricity etc. In order to take proper care of services local body has to incur extra expenditure. Many times adequate infrastructure can’t be provided for want of land. Politicians should first answer these questions, provide solutions without any extra cost to citizens/exchequer and then express their love to people who have not followed laws of this country.
5.            Every one in the country dislikes people living in shacks (Jhopadi). Every one wants to destroy all such unauthorised shacks. No one wishes to apply same rules to unauthorised construction. Some do make rehabilitation schemes. Initially such schemes are priced low (later price increases many folds). Such schemes are invariably planned outside the periphery of cities and towns like it used to be a practice in old India (construction shelters for certain group of people outside security wall of a village/town). It is possible to accommodate such people in regular buildings spread all over city/town and at much lower cost provided land cost is higher than construction. There is similar need of "OldAge Homes” senior citizens always love to stay with their children. However, due to scarcity of accommodation may have to stay in old age homes. This is a mental torture for senior citizens. This can be avoided by construction flats on the same floor as peope from shacks are accommodated. This will give independence to both senior citizens and their children and at the same time visiting would be much more frequent. Even some rooms may be made available for preliminary medical facilities under supervision of good hospitals.
6.           
There is a need to change our architecture to provide security to residents in a building. In earlier days wada/chawl system was followed in residential construction. The advantage of such system had been every one in the locality could see people going and coming out from neighbour houses. There had been disadvantage that there had been no privacy. If western system of flats is modified we can achieve both privacy and security. This would need some modifications in town planning rules. Such modification shall have no unwanted effect though.
7.            I have great belief that if town planning is modified to take in to consideration needs and aspiration of a common man, no citizen will go against nation’s laws. One more point. This is not connected with town planning but with transport. Bus Rapid Transport (BRT in short) can solve transport needs in most of the towns and in come cities too. What is needed is an independent lane for all buses and bus stop under a fly over. All other vehicles would use flyover wherever bus stop is located. People under the flyover can easily get in the bus or come out securely. There shall not be any danger from private vehicles on road. Detals Are here.

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4.                 †¾Öî¬Ö ²ÖÖÓ¬ÖÛúÖ´Ö Ûú¸üÞÖÖ¸üÖ×¾ÖÂÖµÖß ¸üÖ•ÖÛúÖ¸üÞµÖÖÓ“Öê ¯ÖÏê´Ö ˆŸÖæ “ÖÖ»Ö»ÖêµÖ. •µÖÖÓ®Öß ×®ÖµÖ´Ö ´ÖÖê›ü»Öê, ¿ÖÆü¸üÖŸÖ ÝÖ¤üá Ûêú»Öß, •µÖÖÓ“µÖÖ´Öãôêû ÃÖ¾ÖÔÃÖÖ¬ÖÖ¸üÞÖ ÃÖã×¾Ö¬ÖÖ ÛúÖê»Ö´Ö›ü»µÖÖ, •µÖÖÓ®Öß ®Ö¤ü߯ÖÖ¡ÖÖŸÖ ‡´ÖÖ¸üŸÖß ²ÖÖÓ¬Ö»µÖÖ ¾Ö þÖßÖÖŸÖ ×¾ÖÛæú®Ö ®ÖÖÝÖ׸üÛúÖÓ®ÖÖ ÝÖÓ›ü×¾Ö»Öê ŸµÖÖÓ®ÖÖ ×¿ÖõÖÖ Ûú¸üÞµÖÖ‹ê¾Ö•Öß ¸üÖ•ÖÛúÖ¸üÞÖß ŸÖß ÛúÖ´Öê £ÖÖê›üÖÃÖÖ ¤Óü›ü †ÖÛúÖºþ®Ö ¾Öî¬Ö Ûú¸üÖ †ÃÖê ´ÖÖÝÖÞÖê ¿ÖÖÃÖ®ÖÖÛú›êü Ûú¸üŸÖÖŸÖ. ¯ÖÖÞÖß, ¾Öß•Ö, ´Ö»Ö×®ÖÃÃÖÖ¸üÞÖ ¾ÖÖÆüŸÖãÛú ¾ÖÝÖî¸êü ÃÖã×¾Ö¬ÖÖ ÃÖõÖ´Ö Ûú¸üÞµÖÖÛú׸üŸÖÖ •ÖÖê ÜÖ“ÖÔ µÖê‡Ô»Ö ŸÖÖê µÖÖ ¸üÖ•ÖÛúÖ¸üÞµÖÖÓÛú›æü®Ö ¾ÖÃÖæ»Ö Ûú¹ý®Ö †Ö¬Öß ÃÖã×¾Ö¬ÖÖ ×¾ÖÀ¾ÖÃÖ®ÖßµÖ Ûú¸üÖ¾µÖÖŸÖ ¾Ö ®ÖÓŸÖ¸ü †¾Öî¬Ö ‡´ÖÖ¸üŸÖß²ÖÖ²ÖŸÖ ×®ÖÞÖÔµÖ ‘µÖÖ¾ÖÖ. याच प्रकारची ज्येष्ठ नागरिकांची एक गरज आहे. ज्येष्ठ नागरिकांना आपल्या मुलाबाळासमवेत राहावेसे वाटते. त्यांना त्यामध्ये मानसिक समाधान वाटतेच पण त्या पेक्षा मोठा फायदा म्हणजे सुरक्षितता. झोपडपट्टीवासियांना जशी सवलत अभिप्रेत आहे तशीच सवलत ज्येष्ठ नागरिकांच्या निवासाकरिता द्यावी असे निवास झोपडपट्टीवासियांच्या मजल्यावरच करावी. सोबत नांवाजलेल्या दवाखान्यानी एखाद्या खोलीत तात्कालसेवेची प्राथमिक सोय करावी. याप्रकारची सोय प्रत्येक इमारतीत झाल्यास ´ÆüÖŸÖÖ·µÖÖÛú׸üŸÖÖ वेगळी सोय Ûú¸üÞµÖÖ“Ößआवश्यकता भासणार नाही.


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7.           निदान मला तरी वाटते की, नगररचनेमध्यें या प्रकारचे बदल  केल्यास नागरिक सुखी होतील अवैध बांधकामांनाही आळा बसेल. जाता जाता आणखी एक गोष्ट. हिचा नगररचनेशी संबंध नाही परंतु, वाहतुकीशी संबंधित आहे. पुष्कळशा शहरात बीआरटीसेवा सुरक्षित केली तर वाहतुकीचे प्रश्न सुटु शकतात. एक करावे लागेल. जे मार्ग निवडाल त्यावरील प्रत्येक बस बीआरटी प्रत्येक थांबा उड्डाणपुलाखाली. एक स्वतंत्र लेन सर्व बससाठी, उड्डाणपूलाखाली बसथांबा केल्याने बाकी वाहने उड्डाणपुलावरून जातील प्रवाशी पुलाखाली सुरक्षित राहतील. वाकी वाहनाखाली प्रवाशी सापडणार नाहीत. त्याबाबत सुरक्षित. येथे अधिक माहिती मिळेल.

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