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Monday, 10 October 2011

Walk Your Way to Better Health:

Walking can do wonders for both body and mind. Learn how to increase the benefits, no matter where and when you walk.

This article is from by Elena Rover. I have picked up from Internet.
"Above all, do not lose your desire to walk," said Søren Kierkegaard, the 19th-century Danish philosopher. "Every day I walk myself into a state of well-being and walk away from every illness." More than 150 years later, millions of people are following in his footsteps. And for good reason. Researchers know that walking regularly can strengthen your bones, tone your muscles, and trim your waist, and it may reduce your risk of some cancers and other deadly diseases. The more you walk, the better your mood and the lower your risk of depression.
Whether you walk throughout the day, take regimented hikes, use a treadmill, or speed-walk, you can boost the health benefits of your routine. And if you currently hardly walk at all, here's your chance to hit your stride.

The Constant Walker

Profile: You set out on foot to run errands, exercise the dog, or get to work. All in all, you may walk for a half hour or more and cover a few miles a day.

 Payoff: Although you're not huffing and puffing, you are getting more exercise than most Americans do (only 30 percent get the recommended half hour of exercise a day, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). If your daily strolls add up to a half hour most days of the week, you'll probably add a year or more to your life, according to a study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

 Next steps: Buy a basic pedometer and aim for 10,000 steps a day (the average American takes about 5,000). Counting steps rather than minutes will encourage you to walk farther, says Dixie Thompson, Ph.D., director of the Center for Physical Activity and Health at the
University of Tennessee at Knoxville. In one study, Thompson and her colleagues asked women to take a brisk walk for 30 minutes on most days or to accumulate 10,000 steps a day. Women who counted steps rather than minutes took an additional 2,000 steps a day, which adds up to almost a mile. Record your steps for one day, then add 1,000 more each week until you reach 10,000, suggests Thompson.

 Push yourself: You should be breathing hard but not gasping or breathless to give your heart and lungs a good workout. Brisk walking burns 460 calories an hour, while walking at a moderate pace burns just 280.

 Tips: One way to add more steps is to be less efficient. Instead of piling things on the stairs so you can take everything up or down at once, take each item as you find it. After a trip to the supermarket, bring in fewer bags from the car and make more trips to the kitchen. At work, walk down the hall to see a colleague, rather than calling her on the phone or sending an e-mail. If you're trying to fit in steps where you can, make sure you carry a light bag and wear shoes with low heels, flexible forefeet, and good arch support.

The Fast and Fit Walker

Profile: Walking is your main form of exercise (as it is for about 40 percent of Americans). You walk most days of the week, typically following a set route and going fast enough to get your heart rate up and keep it there for 30 minutes.

 Payoff: A brisk walking routine will help lower blood pressure, improve glucose control (which will help stave off diabetes), prevent heart disease, and tone the buttocks and legs. The more you walk, the stronger your bones will be and the better you'll feel. People who walk five times a week for 30 minutes report that they have more energy, feel healthier, and have more confidence than those who walk infrequently, according to the U.S. Physical Activity Study, a survey conducted by the St. Louis University School of Public Health.

 Next steps: Gradually add some hills. "It's more stressful to walk uphill," says Thompson. "So if you have joint issues, such as sore ankles, give your body plenty of time to adjust."

 Push yourself: Work on your speed by taking faster steps rather than lengthening your stride. "Some folks think they're supposed to reach for a longer stride to pick up speed," says Mark Fenton, author of five books on walking, including Pedometer Walking: Stepping Your Way to Health, Weight Loss, and Fitness (
Lyons, $13, amazon.com), "but that can actually strain the hamstrings and the lower back." When you walk, consider using Nordic poles, which are like ski poles but with rubber tips for pavement (as well as spikes for ice and trails). By pushing off with them as you walk, you'll be able to build your strength and stamina, according to a study conducted by the Cooper Institute, a nonprofit health-research facility in Dallas. Participants burned 20 percent more calories when walking with poles. And because the poles provide support and improve balance, walking with them is gentler on the knees. (Check out nordicwalker.com for poles and local events where you can test the equipment.)

 Tips: To avoid burnout or boredom, continually set new routes, then push yourself to complete them in less time. Look for different paths using Google's Gmaps Pedometer (gmap-pedometer.com). Enter your ZIP code in the "Jump to" field and the map will zero in on your neighborhood.

The Weekend Hiker

Profile: By taking challenging hikes on weekends, up and down hills, you get a workout as well as the mental benefits of being in nature.

 Payoff: Walking on varied terrain builds strength, stamina, and balance (which helps prevent falls as you age). You'll develop tight glutes and toned thighs, even more than you would from the average walking workout. Also, when you walk uphill, your energy expenditure is greater than when you're on a flat surface.

 Next steps: Be active during the week. If you're getting out only on sunny weekends and aren't doing any other exercise, come up with ways to work out midweek and on foul-weather days. On busy, pleasant weekdays, try squeezing in several short walks, aiming for a total of at least 30 minutes. In the winter months, try snowshoeing or cross-country skiing. When you're marooned inside, consider a walking video, like Kathy Smith's Power Walk for Weight Loss Matrix ($15, collagevideo.com) or Leslie Sansone's Advanced 5-Mile Walk ($20, collagevideo.com). Or go to a gym and hop on a treadmill. Your weekday workouts will improve your performance when you hit the trail, making your hikes more pleasurable.

 Push yourself: Wear a weighted backpack or vest to get a more intense workout. "Studies show that when people carry 10 percent of their weight, they burn about 5 to 7 percent more calories," says Fenton. If you weigh 130 pounds, for instance, wear a 13-pound pack.

 Tips: Hiking on uneven terrain can be hard on the ankles, so be sure to wear hiking boots, which are stiffer and taller than sneakers and have better traction. Going downhill can be hard on the knees, so if yours are sensitive, invest in a walking stick or hiking poles to take the pressure off. To find new trails across the country, go to traillink.com.

The Treadmill Stepper

Profile: You have a safe, comfortable place to walk, making it easy to fit in workouts―no bad-weather excuses.

 Payoff: If you use the machine's preset programs, incline settings, and a heart-rate monitor, you're probably pushing yourself to get a good workout. "Unlike walking outdoors, where what goes up must come down, on the treadmill you can walk uphill the whole way," says Thomas Allison, Ph.D., a heart-disease consultant at the Mayo Clinic in
Rochester, Minnesota. "You can't slow down, because you'll fall off. It makes you keep up."

 Next steps: Break up your treadmill routine, since too much consistency can decrease the payoff. Research shows that your body can adapt to the demands of a workout after six to eight weeks, says Fenton, who is also a five-time member of the
U.S. race-walking team. Change what you do every two months―mixing in other workouts or varying your program on the machine by going from a steady 3.5-mile-per-hour session to alternating fast and slow intervals, adjusting the incline, ramping up the pace with a minute of jogging for every five minutes of walking, or slowing down the belt and doing some walking lunges.

 Push yourself: Try taking a treadmill class at a gym. National chains like Crunch and Equinox offer challenging ones that mix some off-treadmill exercises with walking and jogging.

 Tips: Watch your posture. "It's very common to see people using poor form when walking on treadmills," says Thompson. Gripping the rails or craning your neck to see the TV will not only slow you down but might also cause an injury. If you tend to grip, you're probably working too hard. Choose a comfortable setting (start at three miles an hour with no incline) and keep your head up so you can breathe fully. Bend your elbows at right angles so you can pump your arms. Press off the back foot for a full stride and keep your abs firm. Check your form after every mile.

Walking Facts and Tips

Music boosts workouts. In one study, women who listened to music while walking lost more weight and body fat and were more likely to stick to their routines than those who did not, according to researchers at Fairleigh Dickinson University, in Teaneck, New Jersey.

 Regular walking prevents colds. Women who walked briskly for 45 minutes a day, five days a week, were less likely to get colds than women who didn't walk, according to a study by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, in Seattle.

 Walking on cobblestones lowers blood pressure and improves balance. This is true for older adults, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society in 2005.

 Walking with a crowd is safer. The more pedestrians there are at a given intersection, the less likely any walker is to be struck by a car, according to a study published in Injury Prevention in 2003. More people, the authors theorized, make drivers more careful.

Put Yourself to the Test

Your task is simple: After a 5- to 10-minute warm-up (running in place will do), try the four tests.

Modified Push-ups

What they measure: Strength in the chest, the shoulders, and the triceps.

 Why they're important: "Upper-body strength is essential for all sorts of activities that require lifting and pulling, like carrying heavy bags and opening doors," says Cedric Bryant. "Strength here also helps you maintain healthy posture."

 What you need: Yoga mat or towel, stopwatch or clock with second hand.
 How to do them: Place a yoga mat or a towel on the floor to protect your knees. Get down on all fours and place your hands on the floor, slightly in front of your shoulders, fingers pointing forward. Lift up your feet and cross your ankles. Keeping your abdominal muscles contracted, lower toward the floor until your chest is three inches from the ground; push yourself back up to the starting position. Repeat as many times as you can in 60 seconds.

Your Score: Push-ups*

(Number completed in 1 minute)
Well above average
Above average
Average
Below average
Well below average
Age: 50 to 59
21
11-20
7-10
2-6
0-4
Age: 60 to 69
15 or more
10-14
5-9
1-4
0-1

Curl-ups

What they measure: Abdominal and core muscular endurance and strength.
 Why they're important: "Abdominal strength protects the lower back," says Bryant. "It also allows you to safely perform activities that require bending, lifting, and twisting."
 What you need: Masking tape, yoga mat or towel, stopwatch or clock with second hand.
 How to do them: Place two 24-inch strips of tape on a mat or a towel―4½ inches apart if you're 45 or younger, three inches apart if you're 46 or older. Lie on your back with knees bent and feet flat, buttocks close to the tape. Keeping your feet on the floor, reach forward, curling your spine and lifting your shoulders, and slide your fingers along the mat until they touch the second strip of tape. Return to the starting position. Repeat as many curl-ups as you can in 60 seconds.

Your Score: Curl-ups*

(Number completed in 1 minute)

Well above average
Above average
Average
Below average
Well below average
Age: 50 to 59

50 or more
24-49
9-23
less than 9
Age: 60 to 69

48 or more
23-47
2-22
less than 2


Sit-and-Reach

What it measures: Flexibility of the hamstrings and the lower back.

 Why it's important: Tight hamstrings lead to hamstring strains and lower-back pain―"two of the most common injuries that middle-aged people experience," says Bryant. Tight hamstrings may also interfere with healthy posture, by causing your pelvis to tilt back.
What you need: Yoga mat or towel, yardstick, and masking tape.

 How to do it: Sit on the mat with the yardstick between your legs, the 36-inch end facing out. Put a strip of tape across the stick at the 15-inch mark. Keep your legs straight, heels on the tape at that 15-inch mark, with feet about 12 inches apart. Sit up straight. Place one hand on top of the other, exhale, and slowly reach forward as far along the yardstick as you can, lowering your head between your arms. Don't bounce. Relax, sit up, and repeat twice more, noting the farthest inch mark that you reach.

Your Score: Sit-and-Reach*

(Measure reached on yardstick)
Well above average
Above average
Average
Below average
Well below average
Age: 46 to 55

60 cm or more
40 to 43 cm
35 to 38 cm
less than 32 cm
Age: 56+

45 cm or more
35 to 38 cm
32 to 35 cm
less than 30 cm

One-Mile Timed Walk

What it measures: Cardiorespiratory fitness.
 Why it's important: "High cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with fewer health problems," says Steven Farrell. That includes strokes, heart attacks, and breast and colon cancers.
 What you need: Stopwatch or watch with a second hand.
 How to do it: Find a place to walk an uninterrupted mile―a treadmill; four laps of a standard, quarter-mile school track; a flat, quiet road that you've clocked with your car's odometer. Walk as fast as you can, maintaining a steady pace. Keep your shoulders back, your abdominal muscles slightly contracted, and your posture upright. As soon as you finish, record your time to the nearest second. Keep walking for a few minutes, but slow your pace to cool down.

Your Score: One-Mile Timed Walk* (In minutes and seconds)

Well above average
Above average
Average
Below average
Well below average
Age: Under age 40
13:30 or less
13:31 to 16:00
16:01 to 18:30
18:31 to 20:00
20:01 or more
Age: Above age 40
14:30 or less
14:01 to 17:00
17:01 to 19:30
19:31 to 22:00
22:01 or more


Plan Your Ideal Walking Workout

By Sarah Bowen Shea
Make every step count, no matter how often you hit the pavement.
If You Walk Occasionally...
Routine: Begin by walking 10 to 15 minutes on flat ground or on a treadmill at a purposeful pace, or complete 2,000 steps (use a pedometer to monitor your walking progress). "You want to cover a mile in about 20 minutes. That's not a window-shopping pace," says Mark Fenton, a former competitive racewalker and the host of the PBS series America's Walking.
Walking tips: 
  • Maintain an upright but comfortable posture, with your neck, upper back, and shoulders relaxed, suggests fitness-walking expert Sara Donovan, author of Mall Walking Madness: Everything You Need to Know to Lose Weight and Have Fun at the Same Time.
  • Minimize the sway in your lower back; don't jut your rear out. Instead, maintain a slight, natural arch in your back.
  • Gently pull in your abdominal muscles. This helps strengthen your abs while reducing lower-back pain.
 Goal: Aim to walk at least five days a week. Every second or third week, add 5 minutes. After about two or three months of regular walking, you should be up to 30 minutes. Once you've hit half an hour, add variety to your terrain rather than increasing time or speed. This will boost your enjoyment, encouraging you to keep up the habit.
If You’re an Everyday Walker...
Routine: If you're already walking for at least 30 minutes a day, you may be ready to make your routine less routine. Concentrate on increasing distance and speed, gradually working up to 45 minutes. Pick up the pace until you're walking a mile in 15 to 18 minutes. (Wear a pedometer, or use your car to measure your route.) To speed up, take faster steps, not longer strides. "There's a physical limit to stride length, but as your fitness improves you can always take quicker steps," says Fenton, who is also the author of The Complete Guide to Walking for Health, Weight Loss, and Fitness. 
 Walking tip: Bend your arms to about 90 degrees. That turns them into shorter, more compact pendulums. You'll be able to swing them faster and thus help your legs and feet move faster. (Just try running with straight arms.)
 Goal: Set your sights on taking 10,000 steps every day, which adds up to about five miles. You'll take half of those steps just by going about your daily life―grocery shopping, climbing stairs. The rest, about 2½ miles, you'll need to add by fitness walking.




Exercise

 
Body Flexibility


2 comments:

charice ford said...

By training this super-stiffness and trunk stabilization during any exercise, whether it be a squat or military press, we make the entire workout a core workout. The more we maintain proper core engagement, the stronger the core will become and the more defined the midsection will be.

Jana said...

@ charice ford, Thank you for additional information. The article is improved substantially. Please you may put more information as and when you have it.

I appeal to other readers also to help me by providing more information.

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